Right after the end of The Cold War, when Germany unified, the German air force used ex-East-German MiG-29s as red-air combat training throughout NATO.
One of the threats that had to be considered with the MiG-29 was how to avoid its' helmet-cued, high-off-bore-sight (HOBS) heat-seeking missile system used for within-visual-range (WVR) combat.
A counter that was taught was to keep the threat at arms-length. Broken-down air forces with export-MiG-29s which also had poor defensive avionics, were killed by the beyond-visual-range (BVR) AMRAAM.
Eventually, the U.S. fielded their own helmet-mounted-cueing system to work with the AIM-9X. This ended up in the F-15, F-16 and F-18 in the last decade. Parity.
Twenty-some years later after The Cold War (8 after F-22 IOC) and we have this:
"The huge advantage offered by such a high off-boresight missile in combination with a HMCS may give a third or fourth-generation fighter a decided edge over the fifth-generation Raptor (with AIM-9Ms) in a visual range encounter."
Correction: even with an F-22 that has AIM-9X but no HOBS-cueing helmet.
What makes it more interesting is when the BVR AMRAAM faces threats with real defensive avionics and low-observable appliances all you have left is WVR. Most threat fighter aircraft the F-22 will face in combat have HOBS missile systems that can be cued with the helmet. Look off that way..."Fox!".
The following video explains HOBS air-to-air missile systems. I picked this Israeli video (at this point) to cut to the chase. The music for the AIM-9X video was just too annoying.